The last years of Nestor Makhno's life

The last years of Nestor Makhno's life

27 July 2019, 13:17
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After the Genoa Conference, Makhno in April 1922, with the permission of the Romanian government, moved to Poland. But he could not live free: he and his closest comrades were sent to Stshalkovo, one of the largest internment camps in the Poznan province.

In September 1923, Nestor Makhno and his wife were arrested by the Polish authorities on charges of negotiating with representatives of the Soviet mission in Warsaw. It was about the uprising in Eastern Galicia, which was supposed to organize Makhno. In prison, the couple had a daughter, Elena.

On November 27, 1923, a six-day trial of Makhno began in the Warsaw District Criminal Court. He did not plead guilty, claiming that he was an enemy of the Bolsheviks, so he could not enter into any relations with them, and for the “lack of evidence”, he was released with his wife.
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The family settled in Torun, then in Danzig, and in 1925 moved to France and lived in a suburb of Paris. Makhno was forced to work as a laborer, a stage worker in the Paris Grand Opera, at Pat's film studio. True to his ideals, he and in exile contacted with representatives of the anarchist movement, wrote in anarchist publications, wrote memoirs "The Russian Revolution in Ukraine."

The constant material need exacerbated the disease (Makhno suffered from consumption) and finally led to his divorce. In the spring of 1934, Nestor Makhno was taken to hospital, from where he no longer came out - on July 25 he died. The urn with its ashes on July 28 was walled up in the wall of the Communards in the Pere Lachaise cemetery in Paris.

The fate of the wife and daughter of Nestor Makhno was tragic. Since the beginning of the Second World War, Galina Kuzmenko and her daughter Elena were taken to work in Germany. In August 1945, they were arrested by Soviet counterintelligence and convicted: Galina received 10 years of concentration camps, Elena — 5 years, followed by a forced settlement in Kazakhstan. In Ukraine, they have not returned.

Galina Kuzmenko after her release from the Mordovian camps in 1954 moved to her daughter in Kazakhstan. Both lived and died in Jambul (now Taraz), buried nearby in the local cemetery "Green Carpet". Helen had no children.
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